Antarktida – meteostanice

antarktida-meteostaniceAntarktida je pátý největší kontinent. Zároveň je tak pojmenována jižní polární oblast rozprostírající se kolem jižního pólu Země. | Antarctica is the fifth largest continent. It is also termed as the south polar region extending around the south pole of the Earth.

 

 

 

Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station


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Full screen pb Geolocalisation bp

 

 

Krajina i podnebí jsou v Antarktidě natolik drsné, že se tu žádní lidé nikdy neusadili natrvalo. Jedinými obyvateli jsou vědci, kteří zde pobývají na expedicích.

Jedinými obyvateli tohoto kontinentu jsou vědci, kteří tu pracují na výzkumných projektech. Antarktický smluvní systém zmrazuje nároky států na území Antarktidy a zakazuje jakékoliv vojenské aktivity. Jižní polární kruh jako první pravděpodobně překročili novozélandští Maorové. Anglický mořeplavec James Cook roku 1773 zavítal na ledovou návrš, obklopující kontinent. Po něm následovaly britské, ruské a francouzské expedice a také lovci tuleňů z mnoha států.

 


 

Antarctica

(UK English /ænˈtɑːktɪkə/ or /ænˈtɑːtɪkə/, US English /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 in) along the coast and far less inland. The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) (or even −94.7 as measured from space), though the average for the third quarter (the coldest part of the year) is −63 °C (−81 °F). Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades. Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra.

Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered and colonised by humans, unsighted until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of easily accessible resources, and isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians.

Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and thirty-eight have signed it since then. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.



Zdroj - Source: WIKIPEDIA